When patients undergo surgery of their bones and joints, this is often done with the help of radiological imaging. Without the X-rays, doctors would not be able to see some structures and correctly assess the surgical results. But X-rays mean also exposure to radiation. While this is well examined for patients, there is only little evidence on radiation protection for orthopaedic and trauma surgeons. On behalf of the AO Foundation, GOLDHAHN conducted a scientific literature search on this topic and supported the client with a questionnaire and scientific publications.